What are the best strategies for Urinary Tract Infections and asymptomatic bacteriuria in patients with a renal transplantation?
No recommendation can be made about screening and treatment of ASB in renal transplant patients. Experts are of the opinion that it may be appropriate to screen and start treatment for bacteriuria in the early postoperative period and up to 6 months post transplant.
Prophylaxis given for Pneumocystis jiroveci with low-dose TMP-SMX reduces the risk of early UTI and is recommended for the first 6-9 months after renal transplantation.
Treatment of UTI in renal transplant patients should be according to the general guidelines for treatment of complicated UTI, but in the first 3 months after transplantation empirical treatment with the combination of amoxicillin and ciprofloxacin is recommended.
No recommendation can be made about changing immunosuppressive drugs from one class to another to prevent a recurrence of UTI.
In the choice of antibiotics for treatment of recurrent UTI the increased risk for ESBL-related infections should be considered. Therefore, earlier culture results and fluoroquinolone use in the last < 30 days have to be checked.
Removal of the urinary catheter should be done as soon as appropriate.
In case of a UTI the JJ stent should be removed if possible and the urine must be cultured.
In patients with recurrent UTI further investigations for anatomical abnormalities, bladder dysfunction or infection of the native kidneys should be initiated.
It is important to note that several antimicrobial agents can interact with immunosuppressants, especially with calcineurine-inhibitors. Therefore, interactions have to be checked.
This guideline does not include individual introductions to each module. A general introduction can be found in the attachments under the heading 'related'.
UTI are the most common infectious complications after kidney transplantation [(118) B]. The highest incidence of UTI is in the first 3 months after transplantation [(119). A1].
Induction therapy with antithymocyte globulin compared to induction therapy with basiliximab increases the risk of UTI in the first year after transplantation, with similar graft and patient survival.. [(125) A2]
With the use of prophylaxis with TMP-SMX for PJP the incidence of UTI has decreased [(135) A1]
In a double-blind RCT prophylaxis with high-dose TMP-SMX (320/1600 daily in 2 gifts) decreased the incidence of UTI to 25% compared to 49% in the patients with a moderate (160/800 daily) or low dose (80/400 daily)[(138) A2].
ASB episodes are associated with pyelonephritis and with rejection [(134) B].
Treatment of ASB in renal transplants does not show any benefit on graft function [(134) B; (135) B].
A meta-analysis showed no significant difference in graft loss with prophylactic use of antibiotics in the first 6 months after renal transplantation. However, prophylaxis lowered the risk for developing sepsis with bacteremia by 87% (RR 0.13, 95% CI 0.02-0.7) and the risk for developing bacteriuria (symptomatic or asymptomatic) by 60% (RR 0.41, 95% CI 0.31-0.56) [(128) A1].
The most frequently isolated micro-organisms in the first 3 months after transplantation appear to be the Escherichia Coli , Pseudomonas aeruginosa and enterococci [(120) C; (130) C; (132) D].
Early (< 3 days) removal of urinary catheters reduces the risk of UTI in the post-transplantation period [(140) C; (141) D].
Early UTI in the first 6 months after transplantation are more commonly associated with pyelonephritis, bacteremia and relapse (127) D; (137) D].
Recurrent UTI and acute graft pyelonephritis are associated with a poorer graft and patient outcome [(130) C; (131) B; (129) A2].
The incidence of UTI with ESBL-producing micro-organisms increases with the number of recurrent UTI [(133) B].
Although cranberry juice may have some inhibitory effect on CYP3A activity, no interference with cyclosporine levels has been found [(142) C].
UTIs are the most common infectious complications after renal transplantation, accounting for 45-70% of all infections. The incidence of recurrent UTI (≥ 3 year) is reported to range from 6-18% (118).
The highest incidence of UTI is in the first 3 months after transplantation, which may be related to surgical trauma, presence of urinary catheters and ureteric stents, as well as high doses of immunosuppressive drugs (119). In several retrospective cohort studies the major risk factors for UTI include female gender, time on hemodialysis, diabetes mellitus, pretransplant UTIs, indwelling bladder catheters, anatomic abnormalities of the kidney, intra-operative ureteric stenting, rejection episodes, cytomegalovirus and BK virus infection, re-transplantation, polycystic kidney disease, postmortal donor, ASB and possibly the amount and kind of immunosuppression (120), (118), (121), (122).
Vesico-ureteric reflux (VUR) to the transplanted kidney appears to be a unique risk factor for this group of patients, occurring in 47% of transplant recipients with recurrent UTIs (118). This VUR is a consequence of the kidney transplantation surgery, which causes disruption of the normal valve of the ureteric orifice.
There are conflicting results on the role of immunosuppressive drugs in the risk of UTI in renal transplant patients. In one retrospective cohort study, treatment with mycophenolate mofetil was associated with a higher incidence of UTI compared to azathioprine-based therapy (123), whereas others found an increased incidence of UTI in azathioprine-treated patients (124). Induction therapy with antithymocyte globulin compared to induction therapy with basiliximab showed to increase the risk of UTI in the first year after transplantation, with similar graft and patient survival (125), (126).
No clinical data are available on the benefit of changing immunosuppressive drugs from one class to another to prevent one recurrence of UTI; therefore, no recommendations can be made on this topic.
Especially lower UTIs in the first 6 months after transplantation (early UTI) have a higher risk of complications, because these early infections are more commonly associated with pyelonephritis, bacteremia, and relapse (127), (128). Recurrent UTI, and especially acute graft pyelonephritis (AGPN) and bacteremia, are associated with a poorer graft and poorer patient outcome (129). In a prospective study in 177 renal transplant patients, AGPN did not alter graft or recipient survival but, compared to patients with uncomplicated UTIs, patients with AGPN exhibited a significant decrease in creatinine clearance, already detected after 1 year (MDRD-GFR: AGPN: 39.5 ± 12.5; uncomplicated UTI: 54.6 ± 21.7 mL/min/1.73 m2, P< 0.01) and still persistent (about 50%) 4 years after transplantation (130). This trend was also demonstrated in a large analysis of data from the United States Renal Data System (USRDS) in 28,942 patients (131). In that analysis, late UTI was significantly associated with an increased risk of subsequent death in Cox regression analysis (P < 0.001; adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 2.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.22, 3.85); and adjusted HR for graft loss was 1.85 (95% CI, 1.29, 2.64). The association of UTI with death persisted after adjusting for cardiac and other infectious complications, and regardless of whether UTI was assessed as a composite of outpatient/inpatient claims, primary hospitalized UTI, or solely outpatient UTI.
The most frequently isolated micro-organisms in the first months after transplantation are E. coli, P. aeruginosa and enterococci (120), (130), (132). The risk for infection with ESBL-producing micro-organisms increases significantly with recurrent episodes of UTI, as shown in retrospective studies (133).
In a prospective analysis of urine cultures in 89 patients during 1 year after kidney transplantation, 151 episodes of bacteriuria were detected in 49 patients, of which 65% was ASB, 13% a lower UTI and 22% an upper UTI (Golebiewska et al. 2985-90). In a retrospective single-center study in 388 renal transplant patients bacteriuria was noted in 57% of the female and 21% of the male patients. Bacteriuria correlated positively with the dose of prednisolone and mycophenolate acid (122).
ASB can impair renal function in kidney transplant patients, probably due to cumulative inflammatory damage (132), (127).
In another retrospective study the impact of ASB on renal transplant outcome was analysed in 189 renal transplant recipients. A total of 2-5 ASB episodes were independent factors associated with pyelonephritis, whereas more than 5 episodes was a factor associated with rejection (134). Only a few studies have addressed the problem of ASB in renal transplant recipients; however, in neither of these studies were the frequency of ASB screening or the parameters to evaluate renal function specified. In a more recent study, no benefit on graft function was demonstrated by treatment of ASB (135).
With the use of antibiotic prophylaxis against Pneumocytis jiroveci pneumonia (PJP) with TMP-SMX the incidence of UTI has decreased (135).
A recent meta-analysis showed no significant difference in graft loss (risk ratio [RR] 0.99, 95% CI 0.91-1.81) with prophylactic use of antibiotics in the first 6 months after renal transplantation. However, prophylaxis lowered the risk for developing sepsis with bacteremia by 87% (RR 0.13, 95% CI 0.02-0.7) and the risk for developing bacteriuria (symptomatic or asymptomatic) by 60% (RR 0.41, 95% CI 0.31-0.56; 3 trials). Symptomatic UTI and pyelonephritis were not reported. No significant reduction was found in all-cause mortality, and adverse events rates and conflicting results were reported for the development of resistant bacteria (128). In most of the transplantation centers prophylaxis with TMP-SMX (480-960 mg once daily) for 6-12 months after the kidney transplant is used as PJP prophylaxis. This is in accordance with the recommendations of the guideline of the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) from 2009 (136), because this prophylaxis showed to be beneficial also for prevention of UTI (137), (128), (138). Some studies showed a similar protection for UTI with the use of ciprofloxacin or 1 month ofloxacin prophylaxis after transplantation (139); however, this regimen does not protect against PJP.
In an RCT, trial prophylaxis with high-dose TMP-SMX (320/1600 daily in 2 gifts) decreased the incidence of UTI to 25% compared to 49% in the patients with a moderate (160/800 daily) or low dose (80/400 daily) (138).
Besides TMP-SMX prophylaxis, a good surgical technique and early removal of urinary catheters have a large impact on reducing the risk for UTI after kidney transplantation. Early removal (< 3 days) reduced the rate of UTI to 14%, compared to a rate of 74% in patients with a late removal (>7 days) of the urinary catheter (140), (141).
Recurrent UTI in renal transplant patients
Recurrent UTI (rUTI) in renal transplant patients is difficult to treat. The general recommendations for rUTI can also be applied for renal transplant patients, although none of these interventions (like cranberries or topical estragen) have been thoroughly studied in this group of patients. Although cranberry juice may have some inhibitory effect on CYP3A activity, no interference with cyclosporine levels has been found (142).
There is no specific literature concerning the choice of agent and duration of antibiotic treatment in renal transplant patients. Especially lower UTIs in the first 6 months after transplantation (early UTI) have a higher risk of complications, because these early infections are more commonly associated with pyelonephritis, bacteremia, and relapse (127), (128). For that reason it is recommended that all patients with UTIs in the first 6 months after renal transplantation with clinical and laboratory evidence suggestive of kidney allograft pyelonephritis, should be hospitalized and treated with intravenous antibiotics (KDIGO AmJ Transplant 2009;9(suppl 3):S59-62).
Although it seems reasonable that the immunodeficient state of the renal transplant patients plays an important role in the pathogenesis of recurrent UTI in these patients, no robust data are available on the best choice of immunosuppressive drugs in these patients, or possible benefits of switching between classes of immunosuppressive drugs.
Search and select
Databases Pubmed and Cochrane Library
Search Cochrane: search terms: urinary tract infections and kidney transplantation: 1 hit, 1 review included
Search Pub Med: urinary tract infections and kidney transplantation
Limits: <10 years, adults, human studies: 327 results, all titles screened, 68 abstracts screened, 20 papers included.
- 1 - Rubenstein JN, Schaeffer AJ. Managing complicated urinary tract infections: the urologic view. Infect Dis Clin North Am 2003 Jun;17(2):333-51.
- 2 - Hooton TM. The current management strategies for community-acquired urinary tract infection. Infect Dis Clin North Am 2003 Jun;17(2):303-32.
- 3 - Gupta K, Hooton TM, Naber KG, Wullt B, Colgan R, Miller LG, et al. International clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis and pyelonephritis in women: A 2010 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the European Society for Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Clin Infect Dis 2011 Mar 1;52(5):e103-e120.
- 4 - Lutters M, Vogt-Ferrier NB. Antibiotic duration for treating uncomplicated, symptomatic lower urinary tract infections in elderly women. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2008;(3):CD001535.
- 5 - Vogel T, Verreault R, Gourdeau M, Morin M, Grenier-Gosselin L, Rochette L. Optimal duration of antibiotic therapy for uncomplicated urinary tract infection in older women: a double-blind randomized controlled trial. CMAJ 2004 Feb 17;170(4):469-73.
- 6 - Burgers JS, van Everdingen JJ. [Evidence-based guideline development in the Netherlands: the EBRO platform]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 2004 Oct 16;148(42):2057-9.
- 7 - van der Starre WE, van NC, Paltansing S, van't Wout JW, Groeneveld GH, Becker MJ, et al. Risk factors for fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli in adults with community-onset febrile urinary tract infection. J Antimicrob Chemother 2011 Mar;66(3):650-6.
- 8 - Jeon JH, Kim K, Han WD, Song SH, Park KU, Rhee JE, et al. Empirical use of ciprofloxacin for acute uncomplicated pyelonephritis caused by Escherichia coli in communities where the prevalence of fluoroquinolone resistance is high. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2012 Jun;56(6):3043-6.
- 9 - Gruchalla RS, Pirmohamed M. Clinical practice. Antibiotic allergy. N Engl J Med 2006 Feb 9;354(6):601-9.
- 10 - Mombelli G, Pezzoli R, Pinoja-Lutz G, Monotti R, Marone C, Franciolli M. Oral vs intravenous ciprofloxacin in the initial empirical management of severe pyelonephritis or complicated urinary tract infections: a prospective randomized clinical trial. Arch Intern Med 1999 Jan 11;159(1):53-8.
- 11 - Sanchez M, Collvinent B, Miro O, Horcajada JP, Moreno A, Marco F, et al. Short-term effectiveness of ceftriaxone single dose in the initial treatment of acute uncomplicated pyelonephritis in women. A randomised controlled trial. Emerg Med J 2002 Jan;19(1):19-22.
- 12 - Schwaber MJ, Carmeli Y. Mortality and delay in effective therapy associated with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase production in Enterobacteriaceae bacteraemia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Antimicrob Chemother 2007 Nov;60(5):913-20.
- 13 - Pena C, Gudiol C, Calatayud L, Tubau F, Dominguez MA, Pujol M, et al. Infections due to Escherichia coli producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase among hospitalised patients: factors influencing mortality. J Hosp Infect 2008 Feb;68(2):116-22.
- 14 - Kola A, Maciejewski O, Sohr D, Ziesing S, Gastmeier P. Clinical impact of infections caused by ESBL-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae. Scand J Infect Dis 2007;39(11-12):975-82.
- 15 - Stamm WE, McKevitt M, Counts GW. Acute renal infection in women: treatment with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or ampicillin for two or six weeks. A randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 1987 Mar;106(3):341-5.
- 16 - van der Starre WE, van Dissel JT, van Nieuwkoop C. Treatment duration of febrile urinary tract infections. Curr Infect Dis Rep 2011 Dec;13(6):571-8.
- 17 - Talan DA, Stamm WE, Hooton TM, Moran GJ, Burke T, Iravani A, et al. Comparison of ciprofloxacin (7 days) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (14 days) for acute uncomplicated pyelonephritis pyelonephritis in women: a randomized trial. JAMA 2000 Mar 22;283(12):1583-90.
- 18 - Sandberg T, Skoog G, Hermansson AB, Kahlmeter G, Kuylenstierna N, Lannergard A, et al. Ciprofloxacin for 7 days versus 14 days in women with acute pyelonephritis: a randomised, open-label and double-blind, placebo-controlled, non-inferiority trial. Lancet 2012 Jun 20.
- 19 - Klausner HA, Brown P, Peterson J, Kaul S, Khashab M, Fisher AC, et al. A trial of levofloxacin 750 mg once daily for 5 days versus ciprofloxacin 400 mg and/or 500 mg twice daily for 10 days in the treatment of acute pyelonephritis. Curr Med Res Opin 2007 Nov;23(11):2637-45.
- 20 - Peterson J, Kaul S, Khashab M, Fisher AC, Kahn JB. A double-blind, randomized comparison of levofloxacin 750 mg once-daily for five days with ciprofloxacin 400/500 mg twice-daily for 10 days for the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections and acute pyelonephritis. Urology 2008 Jan;71(1):17-22.
- 21 - Richard GA, Klimberg IN, Fowler CL, Callery-D'Amico S, Kim SS. Levofloxacin versus ciprofloxacin versus lomefloxacin in acute pyelonephritis. Urology 1998 Jul;52(1):51-5.
- 22 - Carrie AG, Metge CJ, Collins DM, Harding GK, Zhanel GG. Use of administrative healthcare claims to examine the effectiveness of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole versus fluoroquinolones in the treatment of community-acquired acute pyelonephritis in women. J Antimicrob Chemother 2004 Mar;53(3):512-7.
- 23 - Ulleryd P, Sandberg T. Ciprofloxacin for 2 or 4 weeks in the treatment of febrile urinary tract infection in men: a randomized trial with a 1 year follow-up. Scand J Infect Dis 2003;35(1):34-9.
- 24 - Sandberg T, Englund G, Lincoln K, Nilsson LG. Randomised double-blind study of norfloxacin and cefadroxil in the treatment of acute pyelonephritis. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 1990 May;9(5):317-23.
- 25 - Cronberg S, Banke S, Bergman B, Boman H, Eilard T, Elbel E, et al. Fewer bacterial relapses after oral treatment with norfloxacin than with ceftibuten in acute pyelonephritis initially treated with intravenous cefuroxime. Scand J Infect Dis 2001;33(5):339-43.
- 26 - van Nieuwkoop C, van't Wout JW, Spelt IC, Becker M, Kuijper EJ, Blom JW, et al. Prospective cohort study of acute pyelonephritis in adults: safety of triage towards home based oral antimicrobial treatment. J Infect 2010 Feb;60(2):114-21.
- 27 - van Nieuwkoop C, van't Wout JW, Assendelft WJ, Elzevier HW, Leyten EM, Koster T, et al. Treatment duration of febrile urinary tract infection (FUTIRST trial): a randomized placebo-controlled multicenter trial comparing short (7 days) antibiotic treatment with conventional treatment (14 days). BMC Infect Dis 2009;9:131.
- 28 - Naber KG, Bergman B, Bishop MC, Bjerklund-Johansen TE, Botto H, Lobel B, et al. EAU guidelines for the management of urinary and male genital tract infections. Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) Working Group of the Health Care Office (HCO) of the European Association of Urology (EAU). Eur Urol 2001 Nov;40(5):576-88.
- 29 - Corrado ML, Grad C, Sabbaj J. Norfloxacin in the treatment of urinary tract infections in men with and without identifiable urologic complications. Am J Med 1987 Jun 26;82(6B):70-4.
- 30 - Smith JW, Segal M. Urinary tract infection in men--an internist's viewpoint. Infection 1994;22 Suppl 1:S31-S34.
- 31 - Ulleryd P, Zackrisson B, Aus G, Bergdahl S, Hugosson J, Sandberg T. Selective urological evaluation in men with febrile urinary tract infection. BJU Int 2001 Jul;88(1):15-20.
- 32 - Collins MM, Stafford RS, O'Leary MP, Barry MJ. How common is prostatitis? A national survey of physician visits. J Urol 1998 Apr;159(4):1224-8.
- 33 - Krieger JN, McGonagle LA. Diagnostic considerations and interpretation of microbiological findings for evaluation of chronic prostatitis. J Clin Microbiol 1989 Oct;27(10):2240-4.
- 34 - Brunner H, Weidner W, Schiefer HG. Studies on the role of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis in prostatitis. J Infect Dis 1983 May;147(5):807-13.
- 35 - de la Rosette JJ, Hubregtse MR, Meuleman EJ, Stolk-Engelaar MV, Debruyne FM. Diagnosis and treatment of 409 patients with prostatitis syndromes. Urology 1993 Apr;41(4):301-7.
- 36 - Krieger JN, Nyberg L, Jr., Nickel JC. NIH consensus definition and classification of prostatitis. JAMA 1999 Jul 21;282(3):236-7.
- 37 - Lipsky BA. Prostatitis and urinary tract infection in men: what's new; what's true? Am J Med 1999 Mar;106(3):327-34.
- 38 - Lipsky BA, Byren I, Hoey CT. Treatment of bacterial prostatitis. Clin Infect Dis 2010 Jun 15;50(12):1641-52.
- 39 - Charalabopoulos K, Karachalios G, Baltogiannis D, Charalabopoulos A, Giannakopoulos X, Sofikitis N. Penetration of antimicrobial agents into the prostate. Chemotherapy 2003 Dec;49(6):269-79.
- 40 - Dunn BL, Stamey TA. Antibacterial concentrations in prostatic fluid. 1. Nitrofurantoin. J Urol 1967 Mar;97(3):505-7.
- 41 - Ulleryd P, Zackrisson B, Aus G, Bergdahl S, Hugosson J, Sandberg T. Prostatic involvement in men with febrile urinary tract infection as measured by serum prostate-specific antigen and transrectal ultrasonography. BJU Int 1999 Sep;84(4):470-4.
- 42 - Smith JW, Jones SR, Reed WP, Tice AD, Deupree RH, Kaijser B. Recurrent urinary tract infections in men. Characteristics and response to therapy. Ann Intern Med 1979 Oct;91(4):544-8.
- 43 - Sabbaj J, Hoagland VL, Cook T. Norfloxacin versus co-trimoxazole in the treatment of recurring urinary tract infections in men. Scand J Infect Dis Suppl 1986;48:48-53.
- 44 - Bundrick W, Heron SP, Ray P, Schiff WM, Tennenberg AM, Wiesinger BA, et al. Levofloxacin versus ciprofloxacin in the treatment of chronic bacterial prostatitis: a randomized double-blind multicenter study. Urology 2003 Sep;62(3):537-41.
- 45 - Giannarini G, Mogorovich A, Valent F, Morelli G, De MM, Manassero F, et al. Prulifloxacin versus levofloxacin in the treatment of chronic bacterial prostatitis: a prospective, randomized, double-blind trial. J Chemother 2007 Jun;19(3):304-8.
- 46 - Naber KG. Lomefloxacin versus ciprofloxacin in the treatment of chronic bacterial prostatitis. Int J Antimicrob Agents 2002 Jul;20(1):18-27.
- 47 - Paulson DF, White RD. Trimethoprium-sulfamethoxazole and minocycline- hydrochloride in the treatment of culture-proved bacterial prostatitis. J Urol 1978 Aug;120(2):184-5.
- 48 - Gleckman R, Crowley M, Natsios GA. Therapy of recurrent invasive urinary-tract infections of men. N Engl J Med 1979 Oct 18;301(16):878-80.
- 49 - Naber KG. Antimicrobial Treatment of Bacterial Prostatitis. Eur Urol Suppl 2003;2(2):23-6.
- 50 - Peppas T, Petrikkos G, Deliganni V, Zoumboulis P, Koulentianos E, Giamarellou H. Efficacy of long-term therapy with norfloxacin in chronic bacterial prostatitis. J Chemother 1989 Jul;1(4 Suppl):867-8.
- 51 - Schaeffer AJ, Darras FS. The efficacy of norfloxacin in the treatment of chronic bacterial prostatitis refractory to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and/or carbenicillin. J Urol 1990 Sep;144(3):690-3.
- 52 - Weidner W, Schiefer HG, Brahler E. Refractory chronic bacterial prostatitis: a re-evaluation of ciprofloxacin treatment after a median followup of 30 months. J Urol 1991 Aug;146(2):350-2.
- 53 - Naber KG, Busch W, Focht J. Ciprofloxacin in the treatment of chronic bacterial prostatitis: a prospective, non-comparative multicentre clinical trial with long-term follow-up. The German Prostatitis Study Group. Int J Antimicrob Agents 2000 Mar;14(2):143-9.
- 54 - Meares EM, Stamey TA. Bacteriologic localization patterns in bacterial prostatitis and urethritis. Invest Urol 1968 Mar;5(5):492-518.
- 55 - Schaeffer AJ, Knauss JS, Landis JR, Propert KJ, Alexander RB, Litwin MS, et al. Leukocyte and bacterial counts do not correlate with severity of symptoms in men with chronic prostatitis: the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Cohort Study. J Urol 2002 Sep;168(3):1048-53.
- 56 - Nickel JC, Alexander RB, Schaeffer AJ, Landis JR, Knauss JS, Propert KJ. Leukocytes and bacteria in men with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome compared to asymptomatic controls. J Urol 2003 Sep;170(3):818-22.
- 57 - Muller CH, Berger RE, Mohr LE, Krieger JN. Comparison of microscopic methods for detecting inflammation in expressed prostatic secretions. J Urol 2001 Dec;166(6):2518-24.
- 58 - McNaughton-Collins M, Fowler FJ, Jr., Elliott DB, Albertsen PC, Barry MJ. Diagnosing and treating chronic prostatitis: do urologists use the four-glass test? Urology 2000 Mar;55(3):403-7.
- 59 - Litwin MS, McNaughton-Collins M, Fowler FJ, Jr., Nickel JC, Calhoun EA, Pontari MA, et al. The National Institutes of Health chronic prostatitis symptom index: development and validation of a new outcome measure. Chronic Prostatitis Collaborative Research Network. J Urol 1999 Aug;162(2):369-75.
- 60 - Patterson TF, Andriole VT. Detection, significance, and therapy of bacteriuria in pregnancy. Update in the managed health care era. Infect Dis Clin North Am 1997 Sep;11(3):593-608.
- 61 - Macejko AM, Schaeffer AJ. Asymptomatic bacteriuria and symptomatic urinary tract infections during pregnancy. Urol Clin North Am 2007 Feb;34(1):35-42.
- 62 - Millar LK, Cox SM. Urinary tract infections complicating pregnancy. Infect Dis Clin North Am 1997 Mar;11(1):13-26.
- 63 - Kass EH. Bacteriuria and pyelonephritis of pregnancy. Arch Intern Med 1960 Feb;105:194-8.
- 64 - Hill JB, Sheffield JS, McIntire DD, Wendel GD, Jr. Acute pyelonephritis in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 2005 Jan;105(1):18-23.
- 65 - Smaill F. Antibiotics for asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2001;(2):CD000490.
- 66 - Vazquez JC, Abalos E. Treatments for symptomatic urinary tract infections during pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2011;(1):CD002256.
- 67 - Vazquez JC, Villar J. Treatments for symptomatic urinary tract infections during pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000;(3):CD002256.
- 68 - Ben DS, Einarson T, Ben DY, Nulman I, Pastuszak A, Koren G. The safety of nitrofurantoin during the first trimester of pregnancy: meta-analysis. Fundam Clin Pharmacol 1995;9(5):503-7.
- 69 - Usta TA, Dogan O, Ates U, Yucel B, Onar Z, Kaya E. Comparison of single-dose and multiple-dose antibiotics for lower urinary tract infection in pregnancy. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2011 Sep;114(3):229-33.
- 70 - Wing DA, Hendershott CM, Debuque L, Millar LK. Outpatient treatment of acute pyelonephritis in pregnancy after 24 weeks. Obstet Gynecol 1999 Nov;94(5 Pt 1):683-8.
- 71 - Wing DA. Pyelonephritis in pregnancy: treatment options for optimal outcomes. Drugs 2001;61(14):2087-96.
- 72 - Berkovitch M, Diav-Citrin O, Greenberg R, Cohen M, Bulkowstein M, Shechtman S, et al. First-trimester exposure to amoxycillin/clavulanic acid: a prospective, controlled study. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2004 Sep;58(3):298-302.
- 73 - Nicolle LE, Bradley S, Colgan R, Rice JC, Schaeffer A, Hooton TM. Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria in adults. Clin Infect Dis 2005 Mar 1;40(5):643-54.
- 74 - Katchman EA, Milo G, Paul M, Christiaens T, Baerheim A, Leibovici L. Three-day vs longer duration of antibiotic treatment for cystitis in women: systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Med 2005 Nov;118(11):1196-207.
- 75 - Jolley JA, Wing DA. Pyelonephritis in pregnancy: an update on treatment options for optimal outcomes. Drugs 2010 Sep 10;70(13):1643-55.
- 76 - Allen VM, Yudin MH, Bouchard C, Boucher M, Caddy S, Castillo E, et al. Management of group B streptococcal bacteriuria in pregnancy. J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2012 May;34(5):482-6.
- 77 - Nordeng H, Lupattelli A, Romoren M, Koren G. Neonatal outcomes after gestational exposure to nitrofurantoin. Obstet Gynecol 2013 Feb;121(2 Pt 1):306-13.
- 78 - Schrag SJ, Zell ER, Lynfield R, Roome A, Arnold KE, Craig AS, et al. A population-based comparison of strategies to prevent early-onset group B streptococcal disease in neonates. N Engl J Med 2002 Jul 25;347(4):233-9.
- 79 - Smaill F. Asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 2007 Jun;21(3):439-50.
- 80 - Hooton TM, Bradley SF, Cardenas DD, Colgan R, Geerlings SE, Rice JC, et al. Diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of catheter-associated urinary tract infection in adults: 2009 International Clinical Practice Guidelines from the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis 2010 Mar 1;50(5):625-63.
- 81 - Niel-Weise BS, van den Broek PJ. Antibiotic policies for short-term catheter bladder drainage in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005;(3):CD005428.
- 82 - Niel-Weise BS, van den Broek PJ. Urinary catheter policies for long-term bladder drainage. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005;(1):CD004201.
- 83 - Rutschmann OT, Zwahlen A. Use of norfloxacin for prevention of symptomatic urinary tract infection in chronically catheterized patients. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 1995 May;14(5):441-4.
- 84 - Beerepoot MA, ter RG, Nys S, van der Wal WM, de Borgie CA, de Reijke TM, et al. Cranberries vs antibiotics to prevent urinary tract infections: a randomized double-blind noninferiority trial in premenopausal women. Arch Intern Med 2011 Jul 25;171(14):1270-8.
- 85 - Warren JW, Damron D, Tenney JH, Hoopes JM, Deforge B, Muncie HL, Jr. Fever, bacteremia, and death as complications of bacteriuria in women with long-term urethral catheters. J Infect Dis 1987 Jun;155(6):1151-8.
- 86 - Jewes LA, Gillespie WA, Leadbetter A, Myers B, Simpson RA, Stower MJ, et al. Bacteriuria and bacteraemia in patients with long-term indwelling catheters--a domiciliary study. J Med Microbiol 1988 May;26(1):61-5.
- 87 - Polastri F, Auckenthaler R, Loew F, Michel JP, Lew DP. Absence of significant bacteremia during urinary catheter manipulation in patients with chronic indwelling catheters. J Am Geriatr Soc 1990 Nov;38(11):1203-8.
- 88 - Bregenzer T, Frei R, Widmer AF, Seiler W, Probst W, Mattarelli G, et al. Low risk of bacteremia during catheter replacement in patients with long-term urinary catheters. Arch Intern Med 1997 Mar 10;157(5):521-5.
- 89 - Romanelli G, Giustina A, Cravarezza P, Bossoni S, Bodini C, Girelli A, et al. A single dose of aztreonam in the prevention of urinary tract infections in elderly catheterized patients. J Chemother 1990 Jun;2(3):178-81.
- 90 - Wazait HD, Patel HR, van der Meulen JH, Ghei M, Al-Buheissi S, Kelsey M, et al. A pilot randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial on the use of antibiotics on urinary catheter removal to reduce the rate of urinary tract infection: the pitfalls of ciprofloxacin. BJU Int 2004 Nov;94(7):1048-50.
- 91 - Hustinx WN, Mintjes-de Groot AJ, Verkooyen RP, Verbrugh HA. Impact of concurrent antimicrobial therapy on catheter-associated urinary tract infection. J Hosp Infect 1991 May;18(1):45-56.
- 92 - Pfefferkorn U, Lea S, Moldenhauer J, Peterli R, von FM, Ackermann C. Antibiotic prophylaxis at urinary catheter removal prevents urinary tract infections: a prospective randomized trial. Ann Surg 2009 Apr;249(4):573-5.
- 93 - van Hees BC, Vijverberg PL, Hoorntje LE, Wiltink EH, Go PM, Tersmette M. Single-dose antibiotic prophylaxis for urinary catheter removal does not reduce the risk of urinary tract infection in surgical patients: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Clin Microbiol Infect 2011 Jul;17(7):1091-4.
- 94 - Barents JW, Dankert J, Ilic P, Laanbroek HJ, de VH. [The indwelling catheter in gynecology and the development of bacteriuria; a comparative study of patients with the transurethral and the suprapubic catheter]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 1978 Sep 9;122(36):1321-7.
- 95 - Garcia Leoni ME, Esclarin De RA. Management of urinary tract infection in patients with spinal cord injuries. Clin Microbiol Infect 2003 Aug;9(8):780-5.
- 96 - Raz R, Schiller D, Nicolle LE. Chronic indwelling catheter replacement before antimicrobial therapy for symptomatic urinary tract infection. J Urol 2000 Oct;164(4):1254-8.
- 97 - Joshi A, Darouiche RO. Regression of pyuria during the treatment of symptomatic urinary tract infection in patients with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 1996 Dec;34(12):742-4.
- 98 - Harding GK, Nicolle LE, Ronald AR, Preiksaitis JK, Forward KR, Low DE, et al. How long should catheter-acquired urinary tract infection in women be treated? A randomized controlled study. Ann Intern Med 1991 May 1;114(9):713-9.
- 99 - Mohler JL, Cowen DL, Flanigan RC. Suppression and treatment of urinary tract infection in patients with an intermittently catheterized neurogenic bladder. J Urol 1987 Aug;138(2):336-40.
- 100 - Dow G, Rao P, Harding G, Brunka J, Kennedy J, Alfa M, et al. A prospective, randomized trial of 3 or 14 days of ciprofloxacin treatment for acute urinary tract infection in patients with spinal cord injury. Clin Infect Dis 2004 Sep 1;39(5):658-64.
- 101 - Renko M, Tapanainen P, Tossavainen P, Pokka T, Uhari M. Meta-analysis of the significance of asymptomatic bacteriuria in diabetes. Diabetes Care 2011 Jan;34(1):230-5.
- 102 - Shah BR, Hux JE. Quantifying the risk of infectious diseases for people with diabetes. Diabetes Care 2003 Feb;26(2):510-3.
- 103 - Boyko EJ, Fihn SD, Scholes D, Chen CL, Normand EH, Yarbro P. Diabetes and the risk of acute urinary tract infection among postmenopausal women. Diabetes Care 2002 Oct;25(10):1778-83.
- 104 - Gorter KJ, Hak E, Zuithoff NP, Hoepelman AI, Rutten GE. Risk of recurrent acute lower urinary tract infections and prescription pattern of antibiotics in women with and without diabetes in primary care. Fam Pract 2010 Aug;27(4):379-85.
- 105 - Lawrenson RA, Logie JW. Antibiotic failure in the treatment of urinary tract infections in young women. J Antimicrob Chemother 2001 Dec;48(6):895-901.
- 106 - Czaja CA, Rutledge BN, Cleary PA, Chan K, Stapleton AE, Stamm WE. Urinary tract infections in women with type 1 diabetes mellitus: survey of female participants in the epidemiology of diabetes interventions and complications study cohort. J Urol 2009 Mar;181(3):1129-34.
- 107 - Carton JA, Maradona JA, Nuno FJ, Fernandez-Alvarez R, Perez-Gonzalez F, Asensi V. Diabetes mellitus and bacteraemia: a comparative study between diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Eur J Med 1992 Sep;1(5):281-7.
- 108 - Horcajada JP, Moreno I, Velasco M, Martinez JA, Moreno-Martinez A, Barranco M, et al. Community-acquired febrile urinary tract infection in diabetics could deserve a different management: a case-control study. J Intern Med 2003 Sep;254(3):280-6.
- 109 - Nicolle LE, Zhanel GG, Harding GK. Microbiological outcomes in women with diabetes and untreated asymptomatic bacteriuria. World J Urol 2006 Feb;24(1):61-5.
- 110 - Meiland R, Geerlings SE, Stolk RP, Netten PM, Schneeberger PM, Hoepelman AI. Asymptomatic bacteriuria in women with diabetes mellitus: effect on renal function after 6 years of follow-up. Arch Intern Med 2006 Nov 13;166(20):2222-7.
- 111 - Geerlings SE, Stolk RP, Camps MJ, Netten PM, Collet JT, Schneeberger PM, et al. Consequences of asymptomatic bacteriuria in women with diabetes mellitus. Arch Intern Med 2001 Jun 11;161(11):1421-7.
- 112 - Karunajeewa H, McGechie D, Stuccio G, Stingemore N, Davis WA, Davis TM. Asymptomatic bacteriuria as a predictor of subsequent hospitalisation with urinary tract infection in diabetic adults: The Fremantle Diabetes Study. Diabetologia 2005 Jul;48(7):1288-91.
- 113 - Harding GK, Zhanel GG, Nicolle LE, Cheang M. Antimicrobial treatment in diabetic women with asymptomatic bacteriuria. N Engl J Med 2002 Nov 14;347(20):1576-83.
- 114 - Meiland R, Geerlings SE, De Neeling AJ, Hoepelman AI. Diabetes mellitus in itself is not a risk factor for antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from patients with bacteriuria. Diabet Med 2004 Sep;21(9):1032-4.
- 115 - Bonadio M, Costarelli S, Morelli G, Tartaglia T. The influence of diabetes mellitus on the spectrum of uropathogens and the antimicrobial resistance in elderly adult patients with urinary tract infection. BMC Infect Dis 2006;6:54.
- 116 - Goettsch WG, Janknegt R, Herings RM. Increased treatment failure after 3-days' courses of nitrofurantoin and trimethoprim for urinary tract infections in women: a population-based retrospective cohort study using the PHARMO database. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2004 Aug;58(2):184-9.
- 117 - Schneeberger C, Stolk RP, Devries JH, Schneeberger PM, Herings RM, Geerlings SE. Differences in the pattern of antibiotic prescription profile and recurrence rate for possible urinary tract infections in women with and without diabetes. Diabetes Care 2008 Jul;31(7):1380-5.
- 118 - Mitra S, Alangaden GJ. Recurrent urinary tract infections in kidney transplant recipients. Curr Infect Dis Rep 2011 Dec;13(6):579-87.
- 119 - Wilson CH, Bhatti AA, Rix DA, Manas DM. Routine intraoperative ureteric stenting for kidney transplant recipients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005;(4):CD004925.
- 120 - Golebiewska J, Debska-Slizien A, Komarnicka J, Samet A, Rutkowski B. Urinary tract infections in renal transplant recipients. Transplant Proc 2011 Oct;43(8):2985-90.
- 121 - Giral M, Pascuariello G, Karam G, Hourmant M, Cantarovich D, Dantal J, et al. Acute graft pyelonephritis and long-term kidney allograft outcome. Kidney Int 2002 May;61(5):1880-6.
- 122 - Sadeghi M, Daniel V, Naujokat C, Wiesel M, Hergesell O, Opelz G. Strong inflammatory cytokine response in male and strong anti-inflammatory response in female kidney transplant recipients with urinary tract infection. Transpl Int 2005 Feb;18(2):177-85.
- 123 - Kamath NS, John GT, Neelakantan N, Kirubakaran MG, Jacob CK. Acute graft pyelonephritis following renal transplantation. Transpl Infect Dis 2006 Sep;8(3):140-7.
- 124 - Chuang P, Parikh CR, Langone A. Urinary tract infections after renal transplantation: a retrospective review at two US transplant centers. Clin Transplant 2005 Apr;19(2):230-5.
- 125 - Brennan DC, Daller JA, Lake KD, Cibrik D, Del CD. Rabbit antithymocyte globulin versus basiliximab in renal transplantation. N Engl J Med 2006 Nov 9;355(19):1967-77.
- 126 - Alangaden GJ, Thyagarajan R, Gruber SA, Morawski K, Garnick J, El-Amm JM, et al. Infectious complications after kidney transplantation: current epidemiology and associated risk factors. Clin Transplant 2006 Jul;20(4):401-9.
- 127 - de Souza RM, Olsburgh J. Urinary tract infection in the renal transplant patient. Nat Clin Pract Nephrol 2008 May;4(5):252-64.
- 128 - Green H, Rahamimov R, Gafter U, Leibovitci L, Paul M. Antibiotic prophylaxis for urinary tract infections in renal transplant recipients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Transpl Infect Dis 2011 Oct;13(5):441-7.
- 129 - Al-Hasan MN, Razonable RR, Kremers WK, Baddour LM. Impact of Gram-negative bloodstream infection on long-term allograft survival after kidney transplantation. Transplantation 2011 Jun 15;91(11):1206-10.
- 130 - Pelle G, Vimont S, Levy PP, Hertig A, Ouali N, Chassin C, et al. Acute pyelonephritis represents a risk factor impairing long-term kidney graft function. Am J Transplant 2007 Apr;7(4):899-907.
- 131 - Abbott KC, Swanson SJ, Richter ER, Bohen EM, Agodoa LY, Peters TG, et al. Late urinary tract infection after renal transplantation in the United States. Am J Kidney Dis 2004 Aug;44(2):353-62.
- 132 - Saemann M, Horl WH. Urinary tract infection in renal transplant recipients. Eur J Clin Invest 2008 Oct;38 Suppl 2:58-65.
- 133 - Pinheiro HS, Mituiassu AM, Carminatti M, Braga AM, Bastos MG. Urinary tract infection caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing bacteria in kidney transplant patients. Transplant Proc 2010 Mar;42(2):486-7.
- 134 - Fiorante S, Lopez-Medrano F, Lizasoain M, Lalueza A, Juan RS, Andres A, et al. Systematic screening and treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria in renal transplant recipients. Kidney Int 2010 Oct;78(8):774-81.
- 135 - Green H, Rahamimov R, Goldberg E, Leibovici L, Gafter U, Bishara J, et al. Consequences of treated versus untreated asymptomatic bacteriuria in the first year following kidney transplantation: retrospective observational study. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2012 Aug 25.
- 136 - KDIGO clinical practice guideline for the care of kidney transplant recipients. Am J Transplant 2009 Nov;9 Suppl 3:S1-155.
- 137 - Munoz P. Management of urinary tract infections and lymphocele in renal transplant recipients. Clin Infect Dis 2001 Jul 1;33 Suppl 1:S53-S57.
- 138 - Khosroshahi HT, Mogaddam AN, Shoja MM. Efficacy of high-dose trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazol prophylaxis on early urinary tract infection after renal transplantation. Transplant Proc 2006 Sep;38(7):2062-4.
- 139 - Rafat C, Vimont S, Ancel PY, Xu-Dubois YC, Mesnard L, Ouali N, et al. Ofloxacin: new applications for the prevention of urinary tract infections in renal graft recipients. Transpl Infect Dis 2011 Aug;13(4):344-52.
- 140 - Rabkin DG, Stifelman MD, Birkhoff J, Richardson KA, Cohen D, Nowygrod R, et al. Early catheter removal decreases incidence of urinary tract infections in renal transplant recipients. Transplant Proc 1998 Dec;30(8):4314-6.
- 141 - Renoult E, Aouragh F, Mayeux D, Hestin D, Lataste A, Hubert J, et al. Factors influencing early urinary tract infections in kidney transplant recipients. Transplant Proc 1994 Aug;26(4):2056-8.
- 142 - Grenier J, Fradette C, Morelli G, Merritt GJ, Vranderick M, Ducharme MP. Pomelo juice, but not cranberry juice, affects the pharmacokinetics of cyclosporine in humans. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2006 Mar;79(3):255-62.
- 143 - Nicolle LE. Asymptomatic bacteriuria: when to screen and when to treat. Infect Dis Clin North Am 2003 Jun;17(2):367-94.
- 144 - Sallee M, Rafat C, Zahar JR, Paulmier B, Grunfeld JP, Knebelmann B, et al. Cyst infections in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2009 Jul;4(7):1183-9.
- 145 - Gibson P, Watson ML. Cyst infection in polycystic kidney disease: a clinical challenge. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1998 Oct;13(10):2455-7.
- 146 - McNamara JJ. Pyelonefritis in polycystic disease of the kidney. Am J Surg 1965 Feb;109:178-81.
- 147 - Schwab SJ, Bander SJ, Klahr S. Renal infection in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Am J Med 1987 Apr;82(4):714-8.
- 148 - Migali G, Annet L, Lonneux M, Devuyst O. Renal cyst infection in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2008 Jan;23(1):404-5.
- 149 - Idrizi A, Barbullushi M, Petrela E, Kodra S, Koroshi A, Thereska N. The influence of renal manifestations to the progression of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Hippokratia 2009 Jul;13(3):161-4.
- 150 - Idrizi A, Barbullushi M, Koroshi A, Dibra M, Bolleku E, Bajrami V, et al. Urinary tract infections in polycystic kidney disease. Med Arh 2011;65(4):213-5.
- 151 - Rossleigh MA. Scintigraphic imaging in renal infections. Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2009 Feb;53(1):72-7.
- 152 - Bleeker-Rovers CP, de Sevaux RG, van Hamersvelt HW, Corstens FH, Oyen WJ. Diagnosis of renal and hepatic cyst infections by 18-F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Am J Kidney Dis 2003 Jun;41(6):E18-E21.
- 153 - Albert X, Huertas I, Pereiro II, Sanfelix J, Gosalbes V, Perrota C. Antibiotics for preventing recurrent urinary tract infection in non-pregnant women. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004;(3):CD001209.
- 154 - Gupta K, Hooton TM, Roberts PL, Stamm WE. Patient-initiated treatment of uncomplicated recurrent urinary tract infections in young women. Ann Intern Med 2001 Jul 3;135(1):9-16.
- 155 - van Haarst EP, van AG, Heldeweg EA, Schlatmann TJ, van der Horst HJ. Evaluation of the diagnostic workup in young women referred for recurrent lower urinary tract infections. Urology 2001 Jun;57(6):1068-72.
- 156 - Melekos MD, Asbach HW, Gerharz E, Zarakovitis IE, Weingaertner K, Naber KG. Post-intercourse versus daily ciprofloxacin prophylaxis for recurrent urinary tract infections in premenopausal women. J Urol 1997 Mar;157(3):935-9.
- 157 - Rudenko N, Dorofeyev A. Prevention of recurrent lower urinary tract infections by long-term administration of fosfomycin trometamol. Double blind, randomized, parallel group, placebo controlled study. Arzneimittelforschung 2005;55(7):420-7.
- 158 - Schaeffer AJ, Stuppy BA. Efficacy and safety of self-start therapy in women with recurrent urinary tract infections. J Urol 1999 Jan;161(1):207-11.
- 159 - Zhong YH, Fang Y, Zhou JZ, Tang Y, Gong SM, Ding XQ. Effectiveness and Safety of Patientinitiated Single-dose versus Continuous Low-dose Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections in Postmenopausal Women: a Randomized Controlled Study. J Int Med Res 2011;39(6):2335-43.
- 160 - Castello T, Girona L, Gomez MR, Mena MA, Garcia L. The possible value of ascorbic acid as a prophylactic agent for urinary tract infection. Spinal Cord 1996 Oct;34(10):592-3.
- 161 - Ochoa-Brust GJ, Fernandez AR, Villanueva-Ruiz GJ, Velasco R, Trujillo-Hernandez B, Vasquez C. Daily intake of 100 mg ascorbic acid as urinary tract infection prophylactic agent during pregnancy. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2007;86(7):783-7.
- 162 - Jepson RG, Craig JC. Cranberries for preventing urinary tract infections. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2008;(1):CD001321.
- 163 - Perrotta C, Aznar M, Mejia R, Albert X, Ng CW. Oestrogens for preventing recurrent urinary tract infection in postmenopausal women. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2008;(2):CD005131.
- 164 - Raz R, Stamm WE. A controlled trial of intravaginal estriol in postmenopausal women with recurrent urinary tract infections. N Engl J Med 1993 Sep 9;329(11):753-6.
- 165 - Eriksen B. A randomized, open, parallel-group study on the preventive effect of an estradiol-releasing vaginal ring (Estring) on recurrent urinary tract infections in postmenopausal women. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1999 May;180(5):1072-9.
- 166 - Raz R, Colodner R, Rohana Y, Battino S, Rottensterich E, Wasser I, et al. Effectiveness of estriol-containing vaginal pessaries and nitrofurantoin macrocrystal therapy in the prevention of recurrent urinary tract infection in postmenopausal women. Clin Infect Dis 2003 Jun 1;36(11):1362-8.
- 167 - Stapleton AE, Au-Yeung M, Hooton TM, Fredricks DN, Roberts PL, Czaja CA, et al. Randomized, placebo-controlled phase 2 trial of a Lactobacillus crispatus probiotic given intravaginally for prevention of recurrent urinary tract infection. Clin Infect Dis 2011 May;52(10):1212-7.
- 168 - Beerepoot MA, ter RG, Nys S, van der Wal WM, de Borgie CA, de Reijke TM, et al. Lactobacilli vs Antibiotics to Prevent Urinary Tract Infections: A Randomized, Double-blind, Noninferiority Trial in Postmenopausal Women. Arch Intern Med 2012 May 14;172(9):704-12.
- 169 - Lee BB, Simpson JM, Craig JC, Bhuta T. Methenamine hippurate for preventing urinary tract infections. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007;(4):CD003265.
- 170 - Mavromanolakis E, Maraki S, Samonis G, Tselentis Y, Cranidis A. Effect of norfloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and nitrofurantoin on fecal flora of women with recurrent urinary tract infections. J Chemother 1997 Jun;9(3):203-7.
- 171 - Wollersheim H, Hermens R, Hulscher M, Braspenning J, Ouwens M, Schouten J, et al. Clinical indicators: development and applications. Neth J Med 2007 Jan;65(1):15-22.
- 172 - Hermanides HS, Hulscher ME, Schouten JA, Prins JM, Geerlings SE. Development of quality indicators for the antibiotic treatment of complicated urinary tract infections: a first step to measure and improve care. Clin Infect Dis 2008 Mar 1;46(5):703-11.
This guideline does not include evidence tables.
In general the treatment of UTI in renal transplant patients is not different from the treatment in non-transplants; for these patients we refer to the paragraph on empirical treatment and duration of treatment.
However, in the first 3 months after transplantation P. aeruginosa and enterococci are more frequently isolated and empirical treatment must cover these micro-organisms (120), (130), (132). Because of the nephrotoxicity of gentamicin, the Guideline committee recommends to cover these agents with a combination of amoxicillin and ciprofloxacin.
Prevention of UTI after kidney transplantation also needs a thorough management of structural and functional urinary tract abnormalities in the pre-transplant period, which sometimes even justifies nephrectomy of the native kidneys, especially in patients with recurrent UTI in polycystic kidney disease and in patients with VUR to their native kidneys.
In the face of a relapsing UTI in a renal transplant recipient, functional or anatomic abnormalities must be excluded (e.g. stone, obstructive uropathy, poorly functioning bladder, or urodynamic disorders following complication of ureterovesical anastomosis). The most common findings include ureteral reflux, strictures at the ureterovesical junction, neurogenic bladder, and subvesical obstruction, especially in men aged over 60 years. Early removal (< 3 days) of the catheter to reduce the rate of UTI is often not possible, because the junction between ureter and bladder is not healed 3 days after the transplantation (140), (141).
Evidence to support screening recommendations in the post renal transplant period is incomplete. Experts think that it may be appropriate to screen and start treatment for bacteriuria in the early postoperative period and up to 6 months post transplant. However, continued screening for and treatment of ASB in a clinically stable renal transplant recipient beyond 6 months does not seem beneficial given the lack of impact of bacteriuria on graft survival (143). Because of these conflicting results, no clear recommendation can be made for screening and treatment of ASB in renal transplant or other solid organ transplant recipients, which is in concordance with the IDSA guidelines on the Diagnosis and treatment of ASB (73).
In case of an early UTI and presence of a JJ ureteral stent it should be assumed that, despite antibiotic treatment, the urine will (latently) remain infected as long as a corpus alienum is present in the urinary tract. This stent should be removed if possible and the urine must be cultured. In cases of recurrent pyelonephritis experts recommend to administer prolonged courses of antibiotics up to several days after removal of the stent.
Depending on the context, additional investigations might be indicated, such as ultrasound study of the native and transplanted kidneys, positron emission tomography (PET) or computer tomography (CT) scan, cystoscopy or micturating cystogram. One should keep in mind that the native kidneys can be a source for recurrent infections, especially in patients with pre-transplant rUTI.
Because of toxicity, the Guideline committee will not recommend high-dose TMP-SMX (320/1600 daily in 2 gifts) as prophylaxis against UTI, despite the decreased incidence of UTI (138).
Authorization date and validity
Last review : 01-03-2013
Last authorization : 01-03-2013
This guideline was developed and approved by representatives of the professional medical societies, mentioned in the introduction and methods sections and therefore represents the current professional standard in 2013. The guideline contains general recommendations. It is possible that, in individual cases, these recommendations do not apply. Applicability of the guideline in clinical practice resorts to the responsibility of every individual practitioner. Facts or circumstances may occur, in which deviation of the guideline is justified, in order to provide optimal quality of care for the patient.
Initiative and authorization
Initiative : Stichting Werkgroep AntibioticabeleidAuthorized by:
- Nederlandse Huisartsen Genootschap
- Nederlandse Internisten Vereniging
- Nederlandse Vereniging voor Medische microbiologie
- Nederlandse Vereniging voor Obstetrie en Gynaecologie
- Nederlandse Vereniging voor Urologie
Development of this guideline was supported and financed by the SKMS (Kwaliteitsgelden Medisch Specialisten).
Scope and target group
The objective of these guidelines is to update clinicians with regard to important advances and controversies in the antibiotic treatment of patients with complicated urinary tract infections (UTIs).
The guidelines described here cover the empirical antimicrobial therapy of adult patients (for this guideline 12 years or older) with a complicated UTI admitted to a hospital (emergency room or ward) in the Netherlands. Uncomplicated UTIs are treated predominantly by the general practitioner. For the relevant guidelines, see the recently updated Standard for Urinary Tract Infections of the Dutch Society of General Practitioners (NHG). We have tried to adhere to this standard insofar as possible. Urethritis and epididymitis are not included in this guideline.
The Guidelines give a general therapy advice for all UTI with systemic symptoms because, at first presentation of a patient, it is not always possible to differentiate between an acute prostatitis, pyelonephritis or urosepsis. In addition, this differentiation has no consequences for the choice of empirical antimicrobial therapy. Apart from these general guidelines, we give specific advice for certain groups of patients separately.
Member of workgroup
Preparation of the guideline text was carried out by a multidisciplinary committee consisting of experts, delegated from the professional societies for infectious diseases (VIZ), medical microbiology (NVMM), hospital pharmacists (NVZA), urology (NVU), gynaecology (NVO), nephrology (NFN) and general practice (NHG). After consultation with the members of these professional societies, the definitive guideline was drawn up by the delegates and approved by the board of SWAB.
- Dr. S.E. Geerlings (coordinator, SWAB), Internal Medicine/Infectious Diseases specialist, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam
- Dr. C. van Nieuwkoop (VIZ, NIV), Internal Medicine, Emergency Medicine and Infectious Diseases specialist, Department of Internal Medicine, Hagaziekenhuis, the Hague
- E. van Haarst (NVU), Urologist, Department of Urology, St. Lucas Andreas Hospital, Amsterdam
- Dr. M. van Buren (NFN), Internal Medicine and Nephrology specialist, Department of Internal Medicine, Hagaziekenhuis, the Hague
- Dr. B.J. Knottnerus (NHG), General Practitioner, Department General Practice, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam
- Dr. E. E. Stobberingh (NVMM), Medical microbiologist, Lab Medical Microbiology, Maastricht Univerisity Medical Center, Maastricht
- Prof. dr. C.J. de Groot (NVOG), Gynaecologist, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Vrije Universiteit Medical Center, Amsterdam
- Prof. dr. J.M. Prins (SWAB), Internal Medicine/Infectious Diseases specialist, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam
The Guideline committee would also like to thank Frederique Bemelman (nephrologist) for her comments on the chapter about renal transplantation and Albert Vollaard (infectious disease specialist) for his comments on the subchapter about methenamine.
Declaration of interest
The SWAB employs strict guidelines with regard to potential conflicts of interests as described in the SWAB Format for Guideline Development (www.swab.nl). Members of the preparatory committee reported the following potential conflicts of interest:
SE Geerlings: for the RCTs mentioned in the reference numbers 84 en 168 (Beerepoot et al.): Ref 84: Cranberry capsules and placebo capsules for this trial were delivered by Springfield Nutraceuticals, Oud Beijerland, The Netherlands. Ref 168: Chr Hansen A/S, Denmark has the patents for Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 and donated the placebo capsules for this trial.
E v Haarst: has received speaker fees on a national urological symposium from GlaxoSmithKline, the manufacturer of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid.
Other authors: no potential conflicts of interest declared.
This guideline does not include patient involvement.
Method of development
This guideline does not include an implementation strategy.
Methods and proces
This guideline was drawn up according to the recommendations for evidence-based development of guidelines (6), (Evidence-Based Richtlijn-Ontwikkeling (EBRO) and Appraisal of Guidelines Research and Evaluation (AGREE), www.agreecollaboration.org). The guidelines are derived from a review of literature based on the 9 key questions concerning the treatment of UTI. Studies were assigned a degree of evidential value according to the handbook of the Dutch Institute for Healthcare Improvement (Centraal Begeleidingsorgaan/Kwaliteitsinstituut voor de gezondheidszorg, CBO) (CBO. Evidence-based Richtlijnontwikkeling, handleiding voor werkgroepleden. Utrecht: CBO; 2007). Conclusions were drawn, completed with the specific level of evidence, according to the grading system adopted by SWAB (Table 1 and 2). The only exception concerns Nethmap, an annual report from which the resistance surveillance data were used. The Guideline committee cannot give Nethmap a level of evidence and decided to use an asterix (*), but is of the opinion that the results can be given substantial weight, since the surveillance data described in Nethmap cover 30% of the Dutch population. Subsequently, specific recommendations were formulated.
In order to develop recommendations for the optimal treatment of UTI, the literature was searched for the key questions. For each question a literature search was performed in the PubMed database (January 1966 to January 2012) as well as in the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL). For resistance surveillance data NethMap 2011 was used, and for the interpretation of susceptibility test results, in addition, reports of the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) were used. When scientific verification could not be found, the guideline text was formulated on the basis of the opinions and experiences of the members of the Guideline committee.
Searches are available upon request. Please contact the Richtlijnendatabase.
In het programma Doen of Laten? Het terugdringen van onnodige zorg zijn aanbevelingen geïdentificeerd die adviseren iets niet te doen. Doel is aandacht te vragen voor terughoudendheid en te helpen bij het maken van weloverwogen keuzes. Meer over Doen of Laten?